DI-106 – Opportunities of Applying the Smart Metal ” Terfenol-D” in the Oil Field”

Tim Drake of Etrema Products tim.drake@etrema-usa.com

Website: www.etrema-usa.com
Phone Number: 816-246-0566

Drilling Engineer Association Meeting
Presented August 21, 2003
Given by: Tim Drake

ETREMA Products, Inc.
o Subsidiary of Edge Technologies, Inc.
o Privately Held Small Business Located in Iowa State Research Park, Ames, Iowa
o Founded in 1987 as a High Tech Transfer Company
o Key Technology is TERFENOL-D, a Magnetostrictive Alloy

History of TERFENOL-D
o Discovered by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in 1979 to enable more powerful sonar drivers
o Technology was transferred to Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University for further material characterization
o In 1987 technology transferred to ETREMA
o Commercialization began in 1995

Applications Wheel
Magnetostriction
Etrema Products Market Segments

Material Shapes
TERFENOL-D Properties
Effect of Prestress
Flexible Operating Temperature Range
Magnetostriction
Magnetostrictive Life
o Unlike PZT materials TERFENOL-D cannot be over-strained.
– A TERFENOL- D driven projector has operated more than 1012 cycles without failure or reduction in performance.
o Domain alignment is tied to crystal structure.
– Material will not ‘de-pole’ like PZT ceramics due to cyclic operation or variable loading.
o While TERFENOL-D does not produce strain above its Curie temperature , strain performance fully recovers upon cooling below the Curie temperature of 380º C.
Magnetic Circuit
DESIGN OF THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT IS KEY TO OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE
A GOOD MAGNETIC CIRCUIT PROVIDES:
– Maximum magnetic flux in the TERFENOL-D, at minimum current
– Uniform flux density under any operating condition
MAGNETIC CIRCUIT DESIGN REQUIRES:
– Knowledge of TERFENOL-D characteristics and actuator design
– Experience
– Finite Element (FEA) Capability
Engineering Capabilities
TERFENOL-D Attributes
o High reliability
o Fast response time
o High energy density
o High energy conversion
o Broadband frequency range
o Wide temperature range

Combined Technologies
Table Top Demo

” PowerWave™
” Downhole Acoustic Stimulation
” Acoustic sources for MWD applications
” Ultrasonic transducers for in hole inspections
” Seismic devices for the borehole
” Leading Edge Measurement System (LEMS)
” Affordable multiphase measurement
” Telemetry applications as transmitter
Potential Projects of Interest to DEA Members
” VibraCharge-harnessing vibration from the drilling process to generate power.
” Non-intrusive identification of properties of drilling fluids and other fluids-Multiphase Flow Measurement
” Non-intrusive pressure sensing
” Near wellbore cleaning-including drilling fines
” Unsticking stuck tubulars for removal or advancement
” Increasing throughput and/or decreasing blinding of shaker screening systems
” Sensors-pressure & strain measurements
” Other applications open for discussion

VibraCharge
o Conversion of Vibratory energy into Electrical Power using Terfenol-D
o Utilizes the reverse magnetostriction effect of Terfenol-D.
o External vibration causes the material’s magnetic alignment to change creating a magnetic field.
o The field can be received by an inductance coil, which converts the field into an alternating electrical charge.
o This alternating electrical charge is rectified and filtered into a usable direct current.
o The electrical power developed from this device would be capable of recharging a battery pack or capacitor bank.

VibraCharge
VibraCharge
VibraCharge
o From the Coil to the Battery Pack

– A simple rectifier circuit will filter the Alternating Current field into Direct Current.

VibraCharge
VibraCharge
o Where can this technology be used in the industry?
– MWD / LWD: behind the bit, supplying power to downhole battery packs.
– Production: downhole, supplying power to capacitor or battery banks.
– Located at subsea well head, using flow of sea water.
– Remote surface applications?

VibraCharge
o Where are we today?
– Still in the early stage.
– We have a working “demonstration” unit.
– We are looking for a partnership to further development of the concept.

VibraCharge Program Estimate
o Phase I-Concept Development-FND
– Lead-Time 3 Weeks
– Est. Cost $25k Go/No go
o Phase II-POC Design & Mfg
– Lead-Time 21 Weeks
– Est. Cost $180k Go/No go
o Phase III-POC Testing & Verification
– Lead-Time 3 Weeks
– Est. Cost $45k Go/No go
o Phase IV-Detail Design, Procurement, Manufacture, Assemble and Test
– Lead-Time 12 Weeks
– Est. Cost $200k Go/No go
Non-Intrusive Identification/Measurement
· We have taken unique approach to identification and measurement

· Looked outside the oil industry for existing technologies that could be adapted to oil & gas.
· Using existing PATENTED technologies:
· Licensed U.S. Department of Defense technologies
Non-Intrusive Identification/Measurement
Non-Intrusive Identification/Measurement
Non-Intrusive Identification/Measurement
o Where are we today?
– Working to develop inexpensive MPFM-Need partner(s)
– Expect to have a working “demonstration” unit soon

– Seeking partners to explore other possibilities shown on previous slide

Non-Intrusive Pressure Sensing Concept Advantages
o No protrusions through casing/tubular

o Proven technology with high reliability (no moving parts).

o Accurate/repeatable pressure measurement.

o Rugged transducer design capable of down hole environment.

o All sensing and electrical drive equipment at the surface.

o Ability to measure multiple pressures via single electric line.

o In the case of subsea wellheads no sensors or sensing cables down hole
NIPS Electro-Acoustic Transducer Design
NIPS Electro-Acoustic Transducer Design
NIPS Program Cost Estimate-Subsea Wellhead
o Phase I-Theoretical Design & Modeling
– Lead-Time 11 Weeks
– Est. Cost $40k Go/No go
o Phase II-Detail Design
– Lead-Time 8 Weeks
– Est. Cost $75k Go/No go
o Phase III-Parts Procurement, Component Assembly, and Test
– Lead-Time 10 Weeks
– Est. Cost $95k Go/No go

NIPS Program Cost Estimate-Subsea Wellhead
o Phase IV-System Assembly & Test
– Lead-Time 6 Weeks
– Est. Cost $35k
Near Well-Bore Cleaning
o Application may be sonic or ultrasonic
– Recent SPE paper discusses cleaning (SPE # 82198)
o Device can be focused; axial, radial or both
o We have the ability to design and manufacture downhole technology-sonic & ultrasonic
o Need interested partner(s)
Unsticking of Tubulars
o In concept stage
o Possible to build a device that is lowered down drillstring and clamps to the pipe in the area of the stuck tubular
o Device is actuated, reduces friction and tubular can be moved
o Need partner(s) interested in moving concept forward
Shaker Screening Systems
o Demonstrated proof-of-concept
o Possible to enhance current equipment and deliver improvements
o Need partner(s) interested in moving concept forward
o See video’s
Shaker Screening Systems
Shaker Screening Systems
Sensor Opportunities
o High-Temperature Capabilities
o Higher Sensitivity
o Durability/More Robust
o Simpler 3-D Sensor Capabilities
o No Degradation in Sensitivity
o Cost Competitive

Partnerships
o Etrema is open to many different types of partnerships/arrangements
– Engineering service contracts including development & R&D
– Joint development projects
– Joint venture/subsidiary formation
– Joint industry projects
– Open to other suggestions

Partnership for a Solution
o Identify project requirements
o Clarify problem statement
o Identify common ground
o Conceptualize potential solutions
o Outline the steps toward a solution
o Another look at common ground

Drilling Engineer Association Meeting
Presented August 21, 2003
Given by: Tim Drake
ETREMA Products, Inc.
o Subsidiary of Edge Technologies, Inc.
o Privately Held Small Business Located in Iowa State Research Park, Ames, Iowa
o Founded in 1987 as a High Tech Transfer Company
o Key Technology is TERFENOL-D, a Magnetostrictive Alloy

History of TERFENOL-D
o Discovered by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in 1979 to enable more powerful sonar drivers
o Technology was transferred to Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University for further material characterization
o In 1987 technology transferred to ETREMA
o Commercialization began in 1995

Applications Wheel
Magnetostriction
Etrema Products Market Segments
Material Shapes
TERFENOL-D Properties
Effect of Prestress
Flexible Operating Temperature Range
Magnetostriction
Magnetostrictive Life
o Unlike PZT materials TERFENOL-D cannot be over-strained.
– A TERFENOL- D driven projector has operated more than 1012 cycles without failure or reduction in performance.
o Domain alignment is tied to crystal structure.
– Material will not ‘de-pole’ like PZT ceramics due to cyclic operation or variable loading.
o While TERFENOL-D does not produce strain above its Curie temperature , strain performance fully recovers upon cooling below the Curie temperature of 380º C.
Magnetic Circuit
DESIGN OF THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT IS KEY TO OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE
A GOOD MAGNETIC CIRCUIT PROVIDES:
– Maximum magnetic flux in the TERFENOL-D, at minimum current
– Uniform flux density under any operating condition
MAGNETIC CIRCUIT DESIGN REQUIRES:
– Knowledge of TERFENOL-D characteristics and actuator design
– Experience
– Finite Element (FEA) Capability
Engineering Capabilities
TERFENOL-D Attributes
o High reliability
o Fast response time
o High energy density
o High energy conversion
o Broadband frequency range
o Wide temperature range

Combined Technologies
Table Top Demo

” PowerWave™
” Downhole Acoustic Stimulation
” Acoustic sources for MWD applications
” Ultrasonic transducers for in hole inspections
” Seismic devices for the borehole
” Leading Edge Measurement System (LEMS)
” Affordable multiphase measurement
” Telemetry applications as transmitter
Potential Projects of Interest to DEA Members
” VibraCharge-harnessing vibration from the drilling process to generate power.
” Non-intrusive identification of properties of drilling fluids and other fluids-Multiphase Flow Measurement
” Non-intrusive pressure sensing
” Near wellbore cleaning-including drilling fines
” Unsticking stuck tubulars for removal or advancement
” Increasing throughput and/or decreasing blinding of shaker screening systems
” Sensors-pressure & strain measurements
” Other applications open for discussion
VibraCharge
o Conversion of Vibratory energy into Electrical Power using Terfenol-D
o Utilizes the reverse magnetostriction effect of Terfenol-D.
o External vibration causes the material’s magnetic alignment to change creating a magnetic field.
o The field can be received by an inductance coil, which converts the field into an alternating electrical charge.
o This alternating electrical charge is rectified and filtered into a usable direct current.
o The electrical power developed from this device would be capable of recharging a battery pack or capacitor bank.

VibraCharge
VibraCharge
VibraCharge
o From the Coil to the Battery Pack

– A simple rectifier circuit will filter the Alternating Current field into Direct Current.

VibraCharge
VibraCharge
o Where can this technology be used in the industry?
– MWD / LWD: behind the bit, supplying power to downhole battery packs.
– Production: downhole, supplying power to capacitor or battery banks.
– Located at subsea well head, using flow of sea water.
– Remote surface applications?

VibraCharge
o Where are we today?
– Still in the early stage.
– We have a working “demonstration” unit.
– We are looking for a partnership to further development of the concept.
VibraCharge Program Estimate
o Phase I-Concept Development-FND
– Lead-Time 3 Weeks
– Est. Cost $25k Go/No go
o Phase II-POC Design & Mfg
– Lead-Time 21 Weeks
– Est. Cost $180k Go/No go
o Phase III-POC Testing & Verification
– Lead-Time 3 Weeks
– Est. Cost $45k Go/No go
o Phase IV-Detail Design, Procurement, Manufacture, Assemble and Test
– Lead-Time 12 Weeks
– Est. Cost $200k Go/No go
Non-Intrusive Identification/Measurement
· We have taken unique approach to identification and measurement

· Looked outside the oil industry for existing technologies that could be adapted to oil & gas.
· Using existing PATENTED technologies:
· Licensed U.S. Department of Defense technologies
Non-Intrusive Identification/Measurement
Non-Intrusive Identification/Measurement
Non-Intrusive Identification/Measurement
o Where are we today?
– Working to develop inexpensive MPFM-Need partner(s)
– Expect to have a working “demonstration” unit soon

– Seeking partners to explore other possibilities shown on previous slide
Non-Intrusive Pressure Sensing Concept Advantages
o No protrusions through casing/tubular

o Proven technology with high reliability (no moving parts).

o Accurate/repeatable pressure measurement.

o Rugged transducer design capable of down hole environment.

o All sensing and electrical drive equipment at the surface.

o Ability to measure multiple pressures via single electric line.

o In the case of subsea wellheads no sensors or sensing cables down hole
NIPS Electro-Acoustic Transducer Design
NIPS Electro-Acoustic Transducer Design
NIPS Program Cost Estimate-Subsea Wellhead
o Phase I-Theoretical Design & Modeling
– Lead-Time 11 Weeks
– Est. Cost $40k Go/No go
o Phase II-Detail Design
– Lead-Time 8 Weeks
– Est. Cost $75k Go/No go
o Phase III-Parts Procurement, Component Assembly, and Test
– Lead-Time 10 Weeks
– Est. Cost $95k Go/No go

NIPS Program Cost Estimate-Subsea Wellhead
o Phase IV-System Assembly & Test
– Lead-Time 6 Weeks
– Est. Cost $35k
Near Well-Bore Cleaning
o Application may be sonic or ultrasonic
– Recent SPE paper discusses cleaning (SPE # 82198)
o Device can be focused; axial, radial or both
o We have the ability to design and manufacture downhole technology-sonic & ultrasonic
o Need interested partner(s)
Unsticking of Tubulars
o In concept stage
o Possible to build a device that is lowered down drillstring and clamps to the pipe in the area of the stuck tubular
o Device is actuated, reduces friction and tubular can be moved
o Need partner(s) interested in moving concept forward
Shaker Screening Systems
o Demonstrated proof-of-concept
o Possible to enhance current equipment and deliver improvements
o Need partner(s) interested in moving concept forward
o See video’s
Shaker Screening Systems
Shaker Screening Systems
Sensor Opportunities
o High-Temperature Capabilities
o Higher Sensitivity
o Durability/More Robust
o Simpler 3-D Sensor Capabilities
o No Degradation in Sensitivity
o Cost Competitive

Partnerships
o Etrema is open to many different types of partnerships/arrangements
– Engineering service contracts including development & R&D
– Joint development projects
– Joint venture/subsidiary formation
– Joint industry projects
– Open to other suggestions

Partnership for a Solution
o Identify project requirements
o Clarify problem statement
o Identify common ground
o Conceptualize potential solutions
o Outline the steps toward a solution
o Another look at common ground